Eastern Turkistan Islamic Republic
In the Spring of 1932 uprising broke out under leadership of Ghojaniya Haji and Mohammed Amin Bughra in East Turkistan ( currently called Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region in China) against Chinese occupation in East Turkistan. During the one year bloody war with Han Chinese Militarists Uyghur peoples controlled most part of East Turkistan.
On November 12 in 1933 they were briefly to Established an independent East Turkistan Islamic Republic ( Republic of Uyghuristan)‘s Headquarter based in the city of Kashgar. Ghoja Niyaz Haji elected President of East Turkistan Islamic Republic and Sabit Damollam elected Prime Minster.
The Flag of Eastern Turkistan Islamic Republic
East Turkistan Islamic Republic passed a political platform, which stated:
1. End the Chinese dictatorial rule in the land of Eastern Turkistan.
2. Establish a free and independent Eastern Turkistan based on equality for all nationalities.
3. In order to fully develop East Turkistan’s economy, promote industrial, agricultural and animal husbandry as well as private businesses. Increase people’s living standard.
4. Since the majority people of Eastern Turkistan believes Islam, so the government particularly advocate this religion. At the same time, promote religious freedom for other religion.
5. Develop education, culture and health standard of Eastern Turkistan.
6. Establish friendly relations with all the democratic countries in the world, especially with the United Kingdom of Great Britain ,Russia and Turkey.
7. In order to protect Eastern Turkistan’s peace, recruit people of all nationality to establish a strong army.
8. The Bank, Post Service, Telephone and Telegraph, Forestry and all underground wealth belong to the nation.
9. Eliminate individualism, bureaucratic idea, nationalism and corruption among the government officials.
The efforts of East Turkistan Islamic Republic to receive international recognition had been failed despite of despatching the numerous envoys having been sent by Prime-Minister Sabit Damollam to USSR ( Tashkent, Moscow), Afghanistan, Iran ,Turkey, British in India . Soviet Union rejected all offers of dealing with ETIR.
In the north, aid came to Sheng Shicai’s forces on January 24, 1934 in the form of two Soviet Brigades the Altaiska and Tarbaghataiska, disguised as White Russian Cossack Altai Volunteers Army and led by Red Army General Volgin. The Japanese annexation of Manchuria and rumored support for Ma Zhongying’s Hui forces were one cause for concern; equally troubling for Stalin was the prospect that rebellion in East Turkistan might spread to the Soviet Central Asian Republics and offer a haven to Muslim basmachis. Trade ties between East Turkistan and the Soviet Union also gave the Soviets motivation to support Sheng further.
The Soviet brigades, backed by air support , scattered Ma Zhongying’s troops surrounding Urumchi and forced them to retreat southward. On February 16, 1934 the siege of Urumchi was lifted, terminating the period of uncertainty and despair for Sheng and White Guard s Cossack troops, which were trapped in the city by Ma forces since January 07, 1934.
Ghoja Niyaz Hajji had by this time arrived in Kashgar to assume presidency of the ETIR, going against his previous deal with Sheng. Arrived with him another prominent Uyghur leader from Eastern part of Turkistan ( Turpan, Kumul ) Mahmut Muhiti ( known as Mahmut Sijan, i.e. division general ) had agreed to become a minister of Defence in ETIR Government, accepting the offer of Prime-Minister Sabit Damolla
Nevertheless, the ETIR proved to be short-lived. The Hui forces fled from the north linked up with Ma Zhancang’s forces in Kashgar allied with the Chinese troops and attacked the ETIR, forcing Niyaz, Sabit Damolla, and the rest of the government to retreated on February 6 ,1934 to Ying Shar south of the city. The conquering Hui army killed many of those who remained, and a rapid procession of betrayals among the survivors, following their expulsion from Kashgar.
Mahmut Muhiti retreated with his remaining army to Yakand and Hotan, while Goja Niyaz Hajji retreated through Artush to Irkeshtam on Soviet/Chinese border, with tungan troops on his heels, which were chasing after him till the border. Hoja Niyaz took refuge in the USSR, where he was blamed by Soviets.
For accepting from Sabit Damolla the position of first leader of ETIR (President ), but was promised a military aid and great prospects for the future if he would help Sheng Shicai and Soviets to dissolve ETIR.
After signing the the Document of ETIR dismissal and disbanding of its troops Hoja Niyaz Hajji returned Sabit Damollam and several ETIR ministers to Sheng, who rewarded him .later Mahmut retreated to India.